— the Agency, which is responsible for managing a special social security system for those covered by the system, has established a network of bilateral social security agreements since the late 1970s that coordinate the U.S. social security program with similar programs in other countries. This article provides a brief overview of the agreements and should be of particular interest to multinationals and people who work abroad during their careers. A list of countries with which the United States currently has totalization agreements and copies of these agreements can be accessed under U.S. international social security agreements. The agreement with Italy is a departure from other US agreements because it does not regulate the people cashed in. As in other agreements, the basic criterion of coverage is the territorial rule. However, the coverage of foreign workers is mainly based on the nationality of the worker. If an employed or self-employed U.S. citizen in Italy would be covered by U.S. Social Security without the agreement, he will remain covered by the U.S. program and exempt from Italian coverage and contributions.

The provisions to eliminate dual coverage for workers are similar in all U.S. agreements. Each of them establishes a basic rule regarding the location of the employment of a workforce. Under this basic “territorial rule,” a worker who would otherwise be covered by both the United States and a foreign regime is subject exclusively to the coverage laws of the country in which he or she works. The detached house rule may apply if the U.S. employer transfers a worker to work at a foreign branch or in one of its foreign subsidiaries. However, in order for U.S. coverage to continue when a transferred employee works for a foreign subsidiary, the U.S.

employer must have entered into a Section 3121 (l) agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department with respect to the foreign subsidiary. Double tax debt may also affect U.S. citizens and residents working for foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies. This is likely to be the case when a U.S. company has followed the common practice of entering into an agreement with the Treasury, pursuant to Section 3121 (l) of the Internal Income Code, to provide social security to U.S. citizens and residents employed by the subsidiary. In addition, U.S.

citizens and residents who are independent outside the United States are often subject to double social security taxation, as they are covered by the U.S. program, even if they do not have a U.S. business. Workers who have shared their careers between the United States and a foreign country may not be entitled to pensions, survivor benefits or disability insurance (pensions) from one or both countries because they have not worked long or recently enough to meet minimum conditions. Under an agreement, these workers may benefit from partially U.S. or foreign benefits on the basis of combined or “totalized” coverage credits from both countries. Eu rules apply to all EU Member States, i.e. where bilateral agreements exist, they are not mentioned here. The two objectives of the totalization agreements are achieved in different ways in different agreements and make it essential to understand the concept and specifications of each home host alliance.

Many totalization agreements follow the same general pattern of contribution and time. Below is a description of the types of agreements reached by some countries. If a U.S. benefit is payable due to the counting of U.S. and French social security loans, we determine an initial benefit based on your U.S.