The process, an intergovernmental agreement between the EU and third countries, does not have the status of European law. Since the Bologna Declaration is not a treaty or convention, there are no legal obligations for the signatory states; Participation and cooperation are voluntary. Higher education in France is also offered by non-academic institutions that are dedicated to specific subjects. After five years of study at state-recognized “Engineers` Schools”, especially at major schools such as Mines, Central and ENAC, the graduate engineering degree is awarded. In 2003, CRUS made extensive “recommendations for the application of ECTS in Swiss university universities” (updated in 2004) that present and discuss in detail the general aspects of European regulation and its application to the situation in Switzerland. The Bologna Declaration is the result of the meeting of European education ministers on 19 June 1999. This agreement aims to harmonize European higher education. Today, 45 European countries, including Switzerland, are complying with the agreement. [-Declaration of Bologna] Many challenges remain on the road to these reforms. But the next time these changes are avoided, it will be impossible not to reform or delay them, our country will accentuate the isolation effects of Europe and Russia, which are increasingly deepening their own social and economic crisis. Strikes took place in 2002 and 2003[21] and 2007[22] to protest against the reform of the LMD, which has focused more on the underfunding of French universities since May 1968 than on the Bologna process.

Although the two major student organisations do not object to certain aspects of their application to the French system, they generally welcome the European process. According to an online survey[24] by the National Tertiary Education Information Centre, 65% of respondents felt that there was no need to adopt the system. The new system offers fewer guarantees for master`s degrees, as many will complete their training after three years of licensing. Students are expected to study more unrelated subjects in the first three years, as the number of main subjects is lower. [25] The main objective of the Bologna Agreement is the creation of a European higher education area. It increases the mobility of students and researchers, makes studies more attractive in Europe and facilitates the recognition of diplomas. Some Swedish universities have introduced the standard ECTS rating scale for all students, and others will use it only for international students. Since the criteria-based rating is used instead of the relative grade in the Swedish education system, the distribution of students between A, B, C, D and E is not carried out. Some universities only give default or passport grades (F or P) for specific courses (e.g. B internship and graduation work) or tasks such as . B of the lab exercises.